Elevated CO2 and Early Life Stages of Mediterranean Sea Urchins
Martin, S., Richier, S., Pedrotti, M.-L., Dupont, S., Castejon, C., Gerakis, Y., Kerros, M.-E., Oberhansli, F., Teyssie, J.-L., Jeffree, R. and Gattuso, J.-P. 2011. Early development and molecular plasticity in the Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus exposed to CO2-driven acidification. The Journal of Experimental Biology 214: 1357-1368.
Results indicated that "Paracentrotus lividus appears to be extremely resistant to low pH, with no effect on fertilization success or larval survival." They did, however, discover that "larval growth was slowed when exposed to low pH," but they report that there was "no direct impact on relative larval morphology or calcification down to pH 7.25," which equates to an atmospheric CO2 concentration of ~3560 ppm. In addition, they found that "genes involved in development and biomineralization were upregulated by factors of up to 26 at low pH."
Martin et al. conclude that their results reveal "plasticity at the gene expression level" in P. lividus that "allows a normal, but delayed, development under low pH conditions."